Colored Gemstones

Beauty. Rarity. Durability. These attributes attract us to colored gemstones for personal adornment and make gemstones valuable and precious. Colored gemstones provide the opportunity for uniquely personal expression.

Beauty.     Most colored gemstones derive their beauty from their color purples, blues, greens, yellows, oranges, reds. In certain colored gemstones color occurs naturally. Satisfying hues are intrinsic in some garnets, for example. In other colored gemstones, the final color occurs with assistance. For nearly as long as people have worn rubies, we have known how to treat a rough ruby with heat to obtain a desirable red color. Not all rubies are heat treated, but the vast majority are.

Gem cutters work to achieve a pleasing and affordable mix of color, weight (measured in carats), and a safe shape for mounting. During creation, a gemstones size is constrained by nature. For example, while large and beautiful amethysts are readily available, an alexandrite of large size is extremely rare.

Sparkle adds to the beauty of a well-cut colored gemstone. The cut of a colored gemstone describes its shape and how it is fashioned. Some gemstones, such as opal, are suited to a smooth, rounded surface. Others, such as sapphire, are more frequently shaped with a precise series of flat, symmetrical planes, called facets, which make the most pleasing illumination of the gems color. Some cutters today may also use convex or concave facets, shaping colored gemstone like small sculptures.

The clarity of colored gemstones contributes to their beauty. Unless a gemstone is opaque and blocks all light, how light moves through the gemstone affects its beauty. Some gemstones have few internal inclusions to interrupt the passage of light, as is the case with most pieces of Tanzanite. Others have characteristic inclusions. For example, some emerald has a jardine (garden), which makes each gem truly unique.

Rarity.   Across time and cultures, people have adorned themselves with rare gem materials. From pearls and corals plucked from the seas, to bright colored pebbles found in the soils settling at the mouths of rivers; from the collection of gemstones mounted in the breastplate of Aaron as accounted in ancient scripture, to the historic gemstones mounted in the crown jewels of European monarchs, we let ourselves be known through the gemstones we choose to wear. These gemstones are precious because they are rare.

Because of their rarity, gemstones in which color is naturally occurring are generally more valuable. Many gemstones are treated or enhanced in some way, such as with heat or safe irradiation, to achieve the beautiful colors or clarity we desire in the sizes we desire. These gems, which are less rare, can also be very valuable. Some jewelers make synthetic colored gemstones available. Synthetic colored gemstones have all the optical, physical and chemical properties of naturally occurring gemstones, but they are created in a laboratory rather than occurring in nature. For some budgets, these synthetic materials are an acceptable choice.

Durability.   A gemstones ability to be fashioned, mounted and worn is a function of how durable it is  a matter of both hardness and toughness. Some gemstones, such as sapphire, ruby and garnet, are well-suited to an active daily life and work well in rings, bracelets or cufflinks. Others, such as emeralds, pearls and opals call for earring or necklace mountings to keep them beautifully displayed but out of harms way.

Buying Colored Gemstone Jewelry.
When buying colored gemstone jewelry, select what you consider beautiful. Because of the subtle differences in the tone and hue of the colored gemstone you are considering, look at several to find the one you prefer. Some jewelers offer loose colored gemstones and are able to help you create a personalized mounting. You may prefer to buy a finished jewelry item. Discuss how you see yourself wearing the piece so that your jeweler can help you select mountings consistent with your lifestyle. This will provide the best safeguard for your purchase.

You have the right to know what you are buying, whether yours is a natural gemstone, an enhanced or treated gemstone, or a synthetic gemstone. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has established guidelines for the jewelry industry stating that jewelers must disclose any treatment that is not permanent, that creates special care requirements, or that affects the gemstones value. Likewise, if a material is synthetic, it must be disclosed. Jewelers of America (JA) advises its members to disclose all such information, in the belief that a well-informed jewelry purchaser is a satisfied purchaser.

To give you the information you need, many jewelers provide written notice at the time you buy a gemstone by way of a note or code explaining your purchase. This information is written or stamped on the invoice or on an information card enclosed with your purchase. Be sure that the meaning of any code is clear to you. It is important to obtain this information prior to leaving the store, because it affects your purchase price and will also affect future cleaning and repair as well as replacement of an insured loss.

Caring for Your Colored Gemstone Jewelry.  
As is true of all precious items, care extends the life of the jewelry and your pleasure in wearing it. A few pointers follow:
Daily Handling. Put on jewelry, especially cultured pearls, after you apply makeup, perfume or cologne.
Daily Wear. Remove jewelry before heavy yard work, home cleaning chores, working on heavy equipment or relaxing in a pool or spa (especially if you are in chlorine regularly).
Night Routine. After removing jewelry, wipe it gently with a soft cloth to remove residues of the day. Store items in a jewelry case or soft cloth so that they do not touch each other. This avoids the potential of harder gemstones scratching softer ones.

Insurance. Discuss your potential insurance needs with your jeweler or home insurance agent.

Specialized Cleaning. Discuss how to clean your jewelry with your jeweler. Avoid home cleaning solutions, including home ultrasonics, unless you are sure the item is suitable for home cleaning. Some jewelry is suited to home cleaning with a mild soap solution and a soft brush. Always rinse and dry your jewelry thoroughly after cleaning and before storage.

Six-Month Cleaning. Ask your jeweler to clean your jewelry every six months.

Twelve-Month Security Check. At least once a year, ask your jeweler to check the security of your jewelry. Are the prongs holding your gemstone secure? Is the clasp secure? Do the cultured pearls need to be restrung? Does the ring still fit securely or does it need to be resized? During this check, your jeweler might also recommend a re-polishing of the gemstone itself in order to restore the gems original beauty.

Where to Buy Colored Gemstone Jewelry. To make sure you have jewelry that you will be happy with now and for years to come, follow this simple rule: buy from a professional jeweler, someone you can trust. Choose a retailer who has been serving the community for a number of years and has an established reputation.

Ask if the jeweler is a member of Jewelers of America (JA), the national association for retail jewelers. Or look for the J mark on the door. JA jewelers are knowledgeable and they have a wide selection that will make selecting your colored gemstone jewelry a pleasure. Your JA jeweler will not only help you with this purchase, but will also help with all your future jewelry needs, including repairs, custom design or answering questions which you may have about jewelry. JA members have signed and abide by a Code of Ethics, so you can buy with confidence from your JA member jeweler.

In 1997, JA helped sponsor the renovation of the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. The hall houses the Hope Diamond, one of the most famous pieces of jewelry in the world, an extensive collection of jewelry, gems and minerals, and many interactive educational exhibits. As part of its support, JA sponsored Why Is a Ruby Red? an educational video that runs on a continuous loop in the hall and explains how gemstones get their color. JA and your local JA jeweler are proud to be associated with the educational opportunities available at the Smithsonian and invite you to visit the hall to learn more about the life of gemstones, from their creation in the earth to their uses in fine jewelry. 


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